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寒竹:中国历史中的社会主义基因

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2019年09月23日 03:08:12
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(  近)(二)(十)(多)(年)(,社)(会)(主)(义)(的)(发)(展)(在)(全)(球)(出)(现)(了)(一)(个)(看)(似)(矛)(盾)(的)(现)(象)(。一)(方)(面)(,社)(会)(主)(义)(在)(世)(界)(大)(多)(数)(地)(区)(的)(发)(展)(进)(入)(了)(一)(个)(退)(潮)(时)(期)(。上)(个)(世)(纪)(九)(十)(年)(代)(初)(,社)(会)(主)(义)(制)(度)(在)(东)(欧)(和)(苏)(联)(先)(后)(退)(出)(历)(史)(舞)(台)(,全)(球)(只)(剩)(下)(中)(国)(、越)(南)(等)(几)(个)(社)(会)(主)(义)(国)(家)(。但)(另)(一)(方)(面)(,社)(会)(主)(义)(在)(中)(国)(这)(个)(十)(三)(亿)(人)(的)(大)(国)(蓬)(勃)(发)(展)(。经)(过)(三)(十)(多)(年)(的)(改)(革)(开)(放)(,社)(会)(主)(义)(中)(国)(的)(经)(济)(总)(量)(在)(五)(年)(前)(就)(超)(过)(日)(本)(成)(为)(世)(界)(第)(二)(,并)(有)(望)(在)(未)(来)(10年)(超)(过)(美)(国)(成)(为)(全)(球)(第)(一)(大)(经)(济)(体)(。
  为)(什)(么)(社)(会)(主)(义)(在)(欧)(洲)(走)(向)(低)(落)(的)(同)(时)(,在)(中)(国)(却)(得)(到)(了)(巨)(大)(的)(发)(展)(?这)(是)(一)(个)(值)(得)(深)(入)(研)(究)(的)(问)(题)(。众)(所)(周)(知)(,中)(国)(并)(非)(社)(会)(主)(义)(的)(发)(源)(地)(,社)(会)(主)(义)(作)(为)(一)(种)(理)(论)(体)(系)(,作)(为)(一)(种)(社)(会)(制)(度)(,最)(早)(起)(源)(于)(欧)(洲)(。中)(国)(是)(从)(二)(十)(世)(纪)(初)(因)(为)(苏)(联)(的)(十)(月)(革)(命)(才)(引)(进)(了)(马)(克)(思)(主)(义)(,引)(进)(了)(社)(会)(主)(义)(。但)(是)(,为)(什)(么)(今)(天)(社)(会)(主)(义)(在)(中)(国)(的)(发)(展)(远)(远)(超)(过)(了)(它)(的)(发)(源)(地)(?
  对)(于)(这)(个)(问)(题)(,习)(近)(平)(总)(书)(记)(讲)(了)(一)(句)(很)(深)(刻)(的)(话)(:社)(会)(主)(义)(在)(中)(国)(“具)(有)(深)(厚)(的)(历)(史)(渊)(源)(和)(广)(泛)(的)(现)(实)(基)(础)(”。这)(就)(是)(说)(,社)(会)(主)(义)(在)(中)(国)(蓬)(勃)(发)(展)(的)(根)(源)(要)(到)(中)(国)(的)(历)(史)(传)(统)(中)(去)(寻)(找)(,要)(在)(中)(国)(的)(现)(实)(基)(础)(中)(去)(寻)(找)(。本)(文)(试)(图)(从)(历)(史)(与)(现)(实)(两)(个)(方)(面)(去)(探)(索)(社)(会)(主)(义)(在)(中)(国)(发)(展)(的)(深)(刻)(根)(源)(。
  平)(等)(精)(神)(是)(中)(华)(民)(族)(最)(强)(大)(的)(历)(史)(基)(因)(
  从)(公)(元)(前)(600年)(前)(后)(开)(始)(,中)(国)(社)(会)(由)(于)(内)(部)(频)(繁)(的)(战)(争)(而)(出)(现)(了)(世)(界)(上)(规)(模)(最)(大)(的)(以)(土)(地)(私)(有)(化)(为)(基)(础)(的)(平)(民)(运)(动)(,这)(场)(平)(民)(运)(动)(最)(终)(导)(致)(井)(田)(制)(和)(传)(统)(血)(缘)(等)(级)(制)(的)(崩)(溃)(。公)(元)(前)(594年)((鲁)(宣)(公)(15年)()鲁)(国)(宣)(布)(实)(行)(“初)(税)(亩)(”,实)(际)(上)(是)(承)(认)(了)(土)(地)(私)(有)(和)(买)(卖)(兼)(并)(的)(合)(法)(性)(。公)(元)(前)(350年)(,商)(鞅)(在)(秦)(国)(变)(法)(,“废)(井)(田)(,开)(阡)(陌)(”,各)(国)(也)(推)(出)(类)(似)(变)(法)(,至)(此)(,井)(田)(制)(基)(本)(退)(出)(历)(史)(舞)(台)(,土)(地)(私)(有)(在)(中)(国)(正)(式)(法)(律)(化)(。
商)(鞅)(变)(法)(之)(后)(,土)(地)(私)(有)(在)(中)(国)(正)(式)(法)(律)(化)(
  土)(地)(私)(有)(化)(直)(接)(导)(致)(公)(、侯)(、伯)(、子)(、男)(的)(层)(层)(分)(封)(世)(袭)(制)(度)(瓦)(解)(,人)(员)(的)(流)(动)(和)(土)(地)(的)(流)(转)(逐)(渐)(形)(成)(了)(一)(种)(新)(的)(社)(会)(形)(态)(。封)(建)(贵)(族)(和)(平)(民)(之)(间)(原)(来)(无)(法)(逾)(越)(的)(界)(限)(被)(土)(地)(的)(自)(由)(买)(卖)(所)(瓦)(解)(。这)(预)(示)(着)(分)(封)(世)(袭)(的)(贵)(族)(等)(级)(制)(度)(在)(中)(国)(逐)(渐)(退)(出)(历)(史)(舞)(台)(。秦)(王)(嬴)(政)(统)(一)(六)(国)(后)(,废)(分)(封)(,行)(郡)(县)(,开)(创)(了)(世)(界)(上)(最)(早)(的)(科)(层)(化)(官)(僚)(制)(度)(。正)(是)(由)(于)(这)(个)(原)(因)(,美)(国)(学)(者)(弗)(朗)(西)(斯)(福)(山)(把)(秦)(王)(朝)(视)(为)(现)(代)(国)(家)(的)(始)(作)(俑)(者)(。所)(以)(说)(,从)(刚)(性)(的)(经)(济)(和)(政)(治)(制)(度)(上)(看)(,中)(国)(是)(世)(界)(上)(最)(早)(走)(出)(以)(血)(缘)(世)(袭)(为)(基)(础)(的)(贵)(族)(等)(级)(制)(度)(国)(家)(,这)(跟)(中)(古)(时)(期)(血)(缘)(等)(级)(森)(严)(的)(欧)(洲)(与)(日)(本)(社)(会)(有)(很)(大)(差)(别)(。
  相)(对)(于)(贵)(族)(等)(级)(制)(度)(,以)(郡)(县)(制)(为)(基)(础)(的)(科)(层)(化)(官)(僚)(制)(度)(要)(复)(杂)(得)(多)(,这)(尤)(其)(体)(现)(在)(官)(员)(的)(选)(拔)(上)(。贵)(族)(制)(度)(以)(世)(袭)(的)(方)(式)(把)(确)(定)(国)(家)(管)(理)(者)(的)(问)(题)(简)(单)(化)(。贵)(族)(中)(公)(、侯)(、伯)(、子)(、男)(爵)(位)(的)(延)(续)(只)(需)(按)(照)(嫡)(长)(子)(继)(承)(制)(度)(进)(行)(即)(可)(。但)(这)(种)(血)(缘)(等)(级)(制)(度)(最)(大)(的)(弊)(端)(是)(等)(级)(固)(化)(,社)(会)(严)(重)(缺)(乏)(流)(动)(性)(和)(公)(平)(性)(。但)(中)(国)(在)(秦)(汉)(确)(立)(的)(科)(层)(化)(官)(僚)(体)(系)(对)(官)(员)(的)(选)(拔)(和)(任)(命)(是)(在)(整)(个)(社)(会)(中)(进)(行)(,普)(通)(民)(众)(都)(有)(可)(能)(成)(为)(官)(员)(的)(候)(选)(人)(,这)(就)(大)(大)(增)(强)(了)(各)(阶)(层)(之)(间)(的)(流)(动)(性)(和)(社)(会)(的)(公)(平)(性)(。秦)(之)(后)(的)(两)(汉)(时)(代)(官)(吏)(选)(任)(主)(要)(有)(“察)(举)(”与)(“征)(辟)(”两)(种)(形)(式)(,通)(过)(推)(荐)(和)(考)(核)(的)(方)(式)(选)(拔)(官)(员)(。公)(元)(605年)(,隋)(炀)(帝)(设)(进)(士)(科)(取)(士)(,中)(国)(的)(科)(举)(制)(度)(正)(式)(形)(成)(,平)(民)(百)(姓)(跟)(政)(府)(官)(员)(之)(间)(的)(上)(升)(通)(道)(基)(本)(设)(定)(。
  血)(缘)(等)(级)(制)(的)(废)(除)(不)(仅)(改)(变)(了)(中)(国)(的)(政)(治)(制)(度)(和)(国)(家)(权)(力)(结)(构)(,也)(催)(生)(了)(民)(间)(社)(会)(的)(平)(等)(精)(神)(。战)(国)(时)(期)(各)(国)(变)(法)(之)(后)(,民)(间)(社)(会)(的)(平)(等)(精)(神)(日)(趋)(成)(长)(。除)(了)(皇)(室)(,中)(国)(民)(间)(社)(会)(的)(财)(产)(继)(承)(基)(本)(采)(取)(诸)(子)(均)(分)(家)(产)(的)(析)(产)(继)(承)(制)(。到)(了)(宋)(代)(,中)(国)(的)(财)(产)(继)(承)(进)(一)(步)(平)(等)(化)(,有)(些)(地)(区)(已)(经)(出)(嫁)(的)(妇)(女)(和)(非)(婚)(的)(私)(生)(子)(都)(可)(以)(合)(法)(继)(承)(一)(部)(分)(家)(产)(。这)(种)(平)(等)(观)(念)(极)(强)(的)(财)(产)(继)(承)(制)(度)(导)(致)(中)(国)(社)(会)(的)(豪)(门)(大)(户)(难)(以)(形)(成)(世)(袭)(垄)(断)(,极)(大)(地)(促)(进)(了)(社)(会)(的)(流)(动)(性)(。这)(种)(平)(等)(色)(彩)(浓)(厚)(的)(继)(承)(法)(显)(然)(比)(欧)(洲)(和)(日)(本)(流)(行)(的)(嫡)(长)(子)(继)(承)(制)(更)(具)(公)(平)(性)(。
  以)(上)(几)(个)(方)(面)(的)(社)(会)(发)(展)(构)(成)(了)(中)(华)(古)(代)(文)(明)(的)(核)(心)(基)(础)(,中)(国)(基)(本)(形)(成)(了)(君)(主)(/平)(民)((包)(括)(朝)(廷)(百)(官)()社)(会)(的)(二)(元)(构)(架)(。土)(地)(私)(有)(化)(摧)(毁)(了)(由)(血)(缘)(和)(出)(身)(垄)(断)(土)(地)(的)(等)(级)(制)(度)(,推)(动)(了)(社)(会)(成)(员)(全)(国)(性)(的)(流)(动)(和)(土)(地)(的)(自)(由)(流)(转)(;以)(郡)(县)(制)(为)(基)(础)(的)(科)(层)(化)(官)(僚)(制)(度)(把)(平)(民)(的)(流)(动)(性)(引)(入)(政)(治)(,官)(职)(由)(君)(主)(任)(命)(而)(无)(法)(世)(袭)(,贵)(族)(政)(治)(传)(统)(退)(了)(历)(史)(舞)(台)(;科)(举)(制)(设)(定)(了)(平)(民)(进)(入)(国)(家)(管)(理)(部)(门)(的)(普)(遍)(统)(一)(标)(准)(,“朝)(为)(田)(舍)(郎)(,暮)(登)(天)(子)(堂)(”成)(了)(中)(国)(古)(代)(社)(会)(一)(个)(常)(态)(;析)(产)(继)(承)(制)(决)(定)(了)(中)(国)(社)(会)(难)(以)(形)(成)(能)(够)(代)(代)(世)(袭)(的)(地)(方)(豪)(强)(,社)(会)(难)(以)(形)(成)(固)(化)(的)(等)(级)(。这)(四)(个)(因)(素)(使)(得)(平)(等)(精)(神)(逐)(渐)(成)(为)(中)(华)(民)(族)(最)(强)(大)(的)(历)(史)(基)(因)(。中)(国)(古)(代)(的)(这)(种)(平)(等)(精)(神)(虽)(然)(不)(同)(于)(社)(会)(主)(义)(的)(平)(等)(观)(,但)(却)(给)(后)(来)(中)(国)(社)(会)(接)(受)(社)(会)(主)(义)(奠)(定)(了)(深)(厚)(的)(历)(史)(基)(础)(。
  不)(过)(,以)(土)(地)(私)(有)(化)(催)(生)(的)(郡)(县)(制)(度)(虽)(然)(打)(破)(了)(以)(分)(封)(世)(袭)(为)(基)(础)(的)(贵)(族)(制)(度)(,推)(动)(了)(平)(等)(精)(神)(的)(成)(长)(与)(发)(展)(,新)(的)(矛)(盾)(则)(随)(即)(产)(生)(。秦)(汉)(之)(后)(,中)(国)(古)(代)(社)(会)(虽)(然)(难)(有)(世)(代)(相)(传)(的)(世)(袭)(贵)(族)(,但)(取)(代)(血)(缘)(等)(级)(对)(立)(的)(却)(是)(以)(土)(地)(的)(多)(寡)(和)(有)(无)(形)(成)(的)(阶)(级)(对)(立)(,而)(这)(种)(阶)(级)(对)(立)(与)(冲)(突)(的)(激)(烈)(程)(度)(并)(不)(亚)(于)(贵)(族)(等)(级)(社)(会)(。由)(于)(土)(地)(私)(有)(制)(催)(生)(的)(社)(会)(流)(动)(性)(具)(有)(两)(级)(分)(化)(的)(天)(然)(趋)(势)(,土)(地)(兼)(并)(成)(了)(中)(国)(每)(个)(王)(朝)(晚)(期)(难)(以)(避)(免)(的)(噩)(运)(。土)(地)(私)(有)(制)(引)(发)(的)(社)(会)(问)(题)(一)(直)(到)(共)(产)(党)(领)(导)(的)(土)(地)(改)(革)(与)(合)(作)(化)(运)(动)(才)(算)(真)(正)(解)(决)(。
交)(子)(,中)(国)(最)(早)(由)(政)(府)(正)(式)(发)(行)(的)(纸)(币)(
  调)(节)(市)(场)(以)(利)(民)(生)(是)(中)(国)(社)(会)(的)(悠)(久)(传)(统)(
  由)(于)(春)(秋)(战)(国)(时)(期)(形)(成)(的)(土)(地)(私)(有)(制)(和)(人)(员)(的)(流)(动)(性)(,中)(国)(在)(秦)(王)(朝)(统)(一)(之)(前)(已)(经)(有)(非)(常)(发)(达)(的)(商)(业)(,当)(时)(的)(齐)(国)(和)(属)(于)(秦)(国)(的)(蜀)(地)(已)(有)(很)(多)(的)(富)(商)(巨)(贾)(。秦)(王)(朝)(统)(一)(中)(国)(后)(,全)(国)(逐)(渐)(形)(成)(统)(一)(的)(货)(币)(和)(商)(品)(市)(场)(。中)(国)(在)(南)(北)(朝)(时)(已)(经)(有)(了)(“腰)(缠)(十)(万)(贯)(,骑)(鹤)(上)(扬)(州)(”的)(说)(法)(。到)(了)(宋)(代)(,中)(国)(甚)(至)(出)(现)(了)(纸)(币)(“交)(子)(”。由)(于)(商)(业)(的)(发)(达)(,中)(国)(古)(代)(的)(很)(多)(城)(市)(人)(口)(都)(超)(过)(数)(十)(万)(,有)(的)(朝)(代)(京)(城)(人)(口)(已)(经)(超)(过)(百)(万)(。过)(去)(学)(界)(习)(惯)(用)(“男)(耕)(女)(织)(”、“自)(给)(自)(足)(”的)(自)(然)(经)(济)(来)(界)(定)(中)(国)(古)(代)(经)(济)(生)(活)(并)(不)(完)(全)(符)(合)(历)(史)(事)(实)(。
  但)(土)(地)(的)(私)(有)(化)(和)(市)(场)(经)(济)(的)(发)(展)(虽)(然)(瓦)(解)(了)(血)(缘)(等)(级)(制)(度)(而)(有)(利)(于)(社)(会)(的)(平)(等)(性)(和)(流)(动)(性)(,但)(民)(间)(土)(地)(的)(自)(由)(买)(卖)(和)(兴)(盛)(的)(商)(品)(市)(场)(同)(时)(也)(导)(致)(社)(会)(的)(两)(极)(分)(化)(,社)(会)(的)(公)(平)(正)(义)(因)(此)(而)(受)(到)(严)(重)(挑)(战)(。政)(府)(为)(了)(维)(系)(市)(场)(的)(稳)(定)(和)(社)(会)(民)(生)(,常)(常)(运)(用)(价)(值)(规)(律)(对)(商)(品)(市)(场)(进)(行)(干)(预)(。
  在)(古)(代)(农)(耕)(社)(会)(,粮)(食)(是)(最)(重)(要)(的)(商)(品)(。中)(国)(历)(代)(王)(朝)(为)(了)(维)(系)(粮)(价)(的)(稳)(定)(,推)(出)(了)(平)(籴)(、平)(粜)(和)(常)(平)(仓)(等)(政)(策)(。政)(府)(在)(谷)(价)(过)(高)(时)(为)(了)(防)(止)(“谷)(贵)(伤)(民)(”而)(大)(量)(出)(售)(粮)(食)(以)(抑)(平)(粮)(价)(;在)(谷)(价)(过)(低)(时)(为)(了)(防)(止)(“谷)(贱)(伤)(农)(”而)(大)(量)(收)(贮)(粮)(食)(以)(维)(系)(粮)(价)(的)(稳)(定)(。春)(秋)(时)(期)(的)(政)(治)(家)(管)(仲)(、范)(蠡)(、战)(国)(时)(期)(的)(改)(革)(家)(李)(悝)(等)(人)(都)(提)(出)(过)(类)(似)(的)(思)(想)(,在)(后)(来)(的)(两)(千)(多)(年)(历)(史)(中)(,常)(平)(仓)(一)(直)(是)(历)(代)(王)(朝)(维)(系)(粮)(价)(稳)(定)(的)(一)(个)(有)(力)(措)(施)(。由)(于)(中)(国)(历)(史)(上)(的)(常)(平)(仓)(政)(策)(具)(有)(调)(节)(市)(场)(、保)(障)(民)(生)(的)(作)(用)(,二)(十)(世)(纪)(美)(国)(总)(统)(罗)(斯)(福)(“新)(政)(”中)(的)(农)(业)(政)(策)(曾)(借)(鉴)(过)(中)(国)(宋)(代)(王)(安)(石)(新)(政)(中)(的)(常)(平)(仓)(政)(策)(,这)(成)(为)(美)(国)(保)(守)(主)(义)(指)(责)(罗)(斯)(福)(“新)(政)(”具)(有)(社)(会)(主)(义)(色)(彩)(的)(理)(由)(之)(一)(。
  除)(了)(粮)(食)(,对)(于)(其)(它)(一)(些)(有)(关)(国)(计)(民)(生)(的)(商)(品)(,中)(国)(古)(代)(政)(府)(也)(设)(立)(了)(平)(准)(机)(构)(以)(维)(持)(物)(价)(的)(稳)(定)(。当)(市)(场)(上)(某)(种)(商)(品)(价)(格)(上)(涨)(时)(,平)(准)(就)(以)(低)(价)(抛)(售)(该)(商)(品)(以)(抑)(平)(物)(价)(;当)(价)(格)(过)(度)(滑)(落)(时)(,则)(由)(平)(准)(收)(购)(商)(品)(,使)(物)(价)(保)(持)(稳)(定)(。平)(准)(的)(推)(行)(,在)(一)(定)(程)(度)(上)(平)(抑)(了)(物)(价)(,在)(一)(定)(程)(度)(上)(保)(障)(了)(社)(会)(民)(生)(。在)(今)(天)(,保)(障)(物)(价)(的)(稳)(定)(仍)(然)(是)(中)(国)(政)(府)(的)(一)(个)(重)(要)(职)(能)(。
  此)(外)(,中)(国)(历)(朝)(历)(代)(的)(救)(灾)(制)(度)(也)(是)(可)(圈)(可)(点)(。中)(国)(是)(一)(个)(灾)(难)(频)(繁)(发)(生)(的)(国)(家)(,作)(为)(一)(个)(农)(耕)(社)(会)(,旱)(灾)(、水)(灾)(、蝗)(灾)(、瘟)(疫)(等)(灾)(难)(对)(社)(会)(影)(响)(极)(大)(,政)(府)(无)(法)(做)(无)(为)(而)(治)(的)(“守)(夜)(人)(”,必)(须)(要)(积)(极)(有)(为)(才)(能)(减)(缓)(灾)(难)(对)(社)(会)(民)(生)(的)(影)(响)(。所)(以)(,中)(国)(很)(早)(就)(发)(展)(出)(一)(整)(套)(对)(应)(灾)(难)(的)(机)(制)(与)(政)(策)(,历)(史)(上)(称)(之)(为)(“荒)(政)(”。根)(据)(学)(界)(的)(一)(般)(看)(法)(,中)(国)(的)(“荒)(政)(”在)(西)(周)(就)(已)(出)(具)(雏)(形)(,在)(几)(千)(年)(的)(发)(展)(中)(形)(式)(丰)(富)(多)(样)(,诸)(如)(赈)(贷)(、平)(粜)(、蠲)(减)(、鬻)(爵)(、移)(民)(等)(。
  秦)(汉)(之)(后)(,由)(于)(郡)(县)(制)(的)(确)(立)(和)(中)(央)(政)(府)(的)(强)(大)(,救)(灾)(成)(为)(国)(家)(的)(统)(筹)(行)(动)(,一)(地)(遭)(灾)(,邻)(近)(各)(地)(政)(府)(必)(须)(援)(助)(。乾)(隆)(年)(间)(,山)(东)(省)(遭)(遇)(水)(灾)(,邻)(近)(的)(河)(北)(、河)(南)(、江)(苏)(、安)(徽)(甚)(至)(关)(外)(的)(辽)(宁)(都)(大)(力)(援)(助)(。如)(果)(灾)(情)(重)(大)(,除)(了)(周)(边)(省)(份)(必)(须)(援)(助)(外)(,朝)(廷)(也)(会)(在)(全)(国)(范)(围)(内)(截)(留)(其)(他)(地)(方)(的)(漕)(粮)(。今)(天)(,人)(们)(通)(常)(把)(政)(府)(在)(救)(助)(灾)(区)(时)(采)(取)(的)(“对)(口)(援)(助)(”和)(“对)(口)(建)(设)(”理)(解)(为)(社)(会)(主)(义)(的)(优)(越)(性)(,其)(实)(,中)(国)(社)(会)(的)(这)(种)(全)(国)(统)(筹)(的)(救)(灾)(机)(制)(已)(经)(有)(相)(当)(悠)(久)(的)(历)(史)(。
  不)(可)(否)(认)(,由)(于)(中)(国)(土)(地)(私)(有)(制)(的)(悠)(久)(传)(统)(,由)(于)(官)(僚)(制)(度)(下)(利)(益)(集)(团)(的)(相)(互)(制)(肘)(,很)(多)(朝)(代)(试)(图)(通)(过)(调)(节)(市)(场)(以)(利)(民)(生)(的)(政)(策)(并)(不)(都)(有)(成)(效)(,一)(些)(改)(革)(和)(“新)(政)(”甚)(至)(难)(免)(变)(质)(,从)(“施)(利)(于)(民)(”演)(变)(为)(“争)(利)(于)(民)(”。不)(过)(,尽)(管)(历)(朝)(历)(代)(的)(政)(策)(或)(改)(革)(的)(成)(效)(有)(很)(大)(不)(同)(,甚)(至)(有)(诸)(多)(失)(败)(,但)(政)(府)(应)(当)(以)(民)(为)(本)(,保)(障)(民)(生)(则)(是)(中)(国)(社)(会)(两)(千)(多)(年)(的)(传)(统)(共)(识)(。
  要)(而)(言)(之)(,尽)(管)(中)(国)(古)(代)(没)(有)(发)(展)(出)(典)(型)(的)(资)(本)(主)(义)(社)(会)(,因)(此)(也)(没)(有)(产)(生)(出)(成)(熟)(的)(社)(会)(主)(义)(理)(论)(。但)(中)(国)(社)(会)(两)(千)(多)(年)(前)(就)(走)(出)(了)(以)(血)(缘)(为)(基)(础)(的)(贵)(族)(等)(级)(制)(度)(,平)(等)(精)(神)(成)(为)(中)(华)(民)(族)(最)(强)(大)(的)(历)(史)(基)(因)(,社)(会)(的)(流)(动)(性)(远)(远)(高)(于)(当)(时)(的)(世)(界)(各)(国)(。而)(中)(国)(社)(会)(的)(平)(等)(精)(神)(又)(决)(定)(了)(历)(代)(中)(国)(政)(府)(不)(得)(不)(高)(度)(重)(视)(社)(会)(的)(国)(计)(民)(生)(,不)(断)(尝)(试)(解)(决)(无)(节)(制)(的)(市)(场)(经)(济)(带)(来)(的)(两)(极)(分)(化)(弊)(端)(。正)(是)(由)(于)(中)(华)(民)(族)(强)(大)(的)(平)(等)(基)(因)(和)(政)(府)(调)(节)(市)(场)(以)(利)(民)(生)(的)(传)(统)(,所)(以)(当)(社)(会)(主)(义)(思)(想)(在)(二)(十)(世)(纪)(初)(传)(入)(中)(国)(后)(,立)(即)(跟)(中)(国)(传)(统)(文)(化)(产)(生)(了)(强)(烈)(的)(共)(鸣)(与)(对)(接)(,迅)(速)(在)(中)(国)(落)(地)(生)(根)(,茁)(壮)(成)(长)(。
社)(会)(主)(义)(是)(中)(国)(历)(史)(和)(现)(实)(的)(选)(择)(
  社)(会)(主)(义)(是)(中)(国)(的)(救)(国)(之)(道)(和)(立)(国)(之)(本)(
  社)(会)(主)(义)(在)(中)(国)(不)(仅)(有)(着)(深)(厚)(的)(历)(史)(渊)(源)(,同)(时)(也)(是)(现)(代)(中)(国)(的)(救)(国)(之)(道)(和)(立)(国)(之)(本)(。众)(所)(周)(知)(,中)(国)(近)(代)(以)(来)(面)(临)(的)(最)(根)(本)(问)(题)(是)(救)(亡)(图)(存)(和)(现)(代)(建)(国)(。中)(国)(如)(何)(才)(能)(在)(列)(强)(的)(枪)(炮)(下)(获)(得)(独)(立)(自)(主)(的)(主)(权)(?如)(何)(才)(能)(把)(传)(统)(的)(古)(代)(社)(会)(转)(变)(为)(一)(个)(现)(代)(国)(家)(?中)(国)(在)(辛)(亥)(革)(命)(之)(后)(,尝)(试)(了)(很)(多)(主)(义)(,尝)(试)(了)(西)(方)(的)(内)(阁)(制)(、总)(统)(制)(和)(多)(党)(制)(,但)(这)(些)(尝)(试)(都)(失)(败)(了)(。在)(社)(会)(主)(义)(传)(入)(中)(国)(之)(前)(,政)(治)(精)(英)(和)(知)(识)(精)(英)(始)(终)(没)(有)(找)(到)(中)(国)(救)(亡)(图)(存)(的)(道)(路)(。
  从)(世)(界)(范)(围)(看)(,西)(方)(国)(家)(的)(现)(代)(建)(国)(大)(都)(是)(上)(层)(统)(治)(集)(团)(建)(国)(,但)(晚)(清)(以)(降)(的)(中)(国)(已)(经)(不)(具)(备)(上)(层)(社)(会)(建)(国)(的)(条)(件)(。从)(1840年)(的)(鸦)(片)(战)(争)(失)(败)(到)(1894年)(的)(甲)(午)(战)(败)(和)(1900年)(的)(八)(国)(联)(军)(入)(侵)(,历)(史)(证)(明)(了)(清)(王)(朝)(已)(经)(丧)(失)(了)(保)(卫)(疆)(土)(和)(保)(护)(国)(民)(的)(能)(力)(,更)(没)(有)(能)(力)(来)(完)(成)(中)(国)(社)(会)(的)(现)(代)(建)(国)(。而)(1919年)(的)(巴)(黎)(和)(会)(证)(明)(了)(民)(国)(政)(府)(也)(无)(法)(承)(担)(救)(亡)(图)(存)(的)(历)(史)(责)(任)(。
  在)(严)(酷)(的)(现)(实)(面)(前)(,先)(进)(的)(中)(国)(人)(开)(始)(意)(识)(到)(中)(国)(的)(上)(层)(统)(治)(集)(团)(已)(经)(腐)(朽)(糜)(烂)(而)(无)(法)(承)(担)(起)(救)(亡)(图)(存)(和)(现)(代)(建)(国)(的)(历)(史)(重)(任)(。而)(中)(国)(当)(时)(底)(层)(的)(老)(百)(姓)(90%(左)(右)()都)(是)(文)(盲)(,几)(乎)(没)(有)(现)(代)(国)(家)(概)(念)(。当)(时)(的)(救)(亡)(图)(存)(只)(有)(一)(条)(路)(,就)(是)(先)(进)(的)(中)(国)(人)(、知)(识)(分)(子)(深)(入)(基)(层)(用)(革)(命)(理)(论)(去)(动)(员)(民)(众)(、发)(动)(民)(众)(,领)(导)(民)(众)(进)(行)(革)(命)(来)(完)(成)(中)(国)(的)(现)(代)(建)(国)(。
  中)(国)(近)(代)(的)(革)(命)(建)(国)(决)(定)(了)(只)(有)(社)(会)(主)(义)(才)(能)(救)(中)(国)(,因)(为)(科)(学)(社)(会)(主)(义)(本)(身)(就)(是)(欧)(洲)(的)(一)(种)(社)(会)(革)(命)(学)(说)(,这)(个)(革)(命)(学)(说)(在)(俄)(国)(成)(功)(地)(催)(生)(了)(十)(月)(革)(命)(。当)(时)(由)(西)(方)(传)(入)(的)(其)(它)(各)(种)(主)(义)(都)(不)(能)(够)(给)(中)(国)(社)(会)(提)(供)(一)(个)(动)(员)(民)(众)(的)(革)(命)(理)(论)(,唯)(有)(马)(克)(思)(主)(义)(、唯)(有)(科)(学)(社)(会)(主)(义)(才)(能)(够)(给)(中)(国)(提)(供)(动)(员)(民)(众)(起)(来)(革)(命)(的)(武)(器)(。正)(是)(因)(为)(这)(个)(历)(史)(与)(现)(实)(的)(需)(要)(,五)(四)(运)(动)(以)(后)(中)(国)(共)(产)(党)(应)(运)(而)(生)(,共)(产)(党)(领)(导)(的)(中)(国)(革)(命)(“顺)(乎)(天)(而)(应)(乎)(人)(”。从)(这)(个)(意)(义)(上)(讲)(,社)(会)(主)(义)(是)(中)(国)(的)(救)(国)(之)(道)(。
  在)(1949年)(建)(国)(之)(后)(,中)(国)(仍)(然)(面)(临)(着)(一)(个)(选)(择)(:究)(竟)(是)(选)(择)(西)(方)(的)(资)(本)(主)(义)(道)(路)(,或)(者)(是)(固)(守)(新)(民)(主)(主)(义)(阶)(段)(,还)(是)(选)(择)(社)(会)(主)(义)(道)(路)(?当)(时)(的)(中)(国)(社)(会)(对)(这)(个)(问)(题)(并)(非)(没)(有)(分)(歧)(。但)(中)(共)(领)(导)(人)(毛)(泽)(东)(坚)(持)(认)(为)(,新)(民)(主)(主)(义)(只)(是)(一)(个)(过)(渡)(时)(期)(,中)(国)(一)(定)(要)(进)(入)(社)(会)(主)(义)(,毛)(泽)(东)(的)(这)(个)(思)(想)(最)(终)(在)(中)(国)(成)(为)(了)(主)(流)(。所)(以)(从)(1953年)(开)(始)(,中)(共)(制)(定)(了)(过)(渡)(时)(期)(的)(总)(路)(线)(,中)(国)(开)(始)(向)(社)(会)(主)(义)(过)(渡)(。到)(了)(1956年)(下)(半)(年)(,中)(国)(完)(成)(了)(农)(业)(合)(作)(化)(和)(城)(市)(的)(社)(会)(主)(义)(改)(造)(,最)(终)(在)(中)(国)(确)(立)(了)(社)(会)(主)(义)(制)(度)(。
  中)(国)(为)(什)(么)(一)(定)(走)(社)(会)(主)(义)(道)(路)(呢)(?
  首)(先)(是)(国)(际)(环)(境)(的)(需)(要)(。当)(时)(的)(中)(国)(亟)(需)(尽)(快)(建)(立)(起)(自)(己)(完)(整)(的)(国)(防)(体)(系)(。1949年)(之)(后)(的)(中)(国)(,仍)(然)(面)(临)(着)(非)(常)(严)(峻)(的)(外)(部)(威)(胁)(。在)(1950年)(,中)(国)(为)(了)(保)(家)(卫)(国)(,进)(行)(了)(三)(年)(的)(抗)(美)(援)(朝)(战)(争)(。而)(在)(相)(当)(长)(一)(段)(时)(期)(,海)(峡)(两)(岸)(仍)(然)(处)(于)(一)(种)(敌)(对)(状)(态)(,美)(国)(军)(舰)(仍)(然)(封)(锁)(着)(中)(国)(的)(台)(湾)(海)(峡)(。这)(个)(时)(候)(的)(中)(国)(如)(果)(不)(集)(中)(力)(量)(建)(立)(起)(自)(己)(的)(国)(防)(,那)(么)(这)(个)(国)(家)(就)(不)(能)(够)(保)(证)(人)(民)(的)(安)(全)(,国)(家)(很)(可)(能)(会)(受)(到)(外)(部)(敌)(人)(的)(侵)(略)(。于)(是)(中)(国)(在)(这)(个)(时)(期)(把)(城)(市)(的)(社)(会)(主)(义)(改)(造)(和)(农)(村)(的)(社)(会)(主)(义)(合)(作)(化)(,跟)(国)(家)(的)(生)(死)(存)(亡)(联)(系)(在)(一)(起)(了)(,跟)(国)(家)(的)(工)(业)(化)(联)(系)(在)(一)(起)(了)(。通)(过)(农)(村)(的)(社)(会)(主)(义)(合)(作)(化)(,国)(家)(可)(以)(集)(中)(农)(村)(的)(物)(质)(资)(源)(;通)(过)(社)(会)(主)(义)(改)(造)(,国)(家)(能)(够)(集)(中)(人)(力)(物)(力)(发)(展)(自)(己)(的)(国)(防)(工)(业)(。现)(在)(回)(顾)(上)(个)(世)(纪)(的)(历)(史)(,中)(国)(的)(国)(防)(工)(业)(、两)(弹)(一)(星)(,包)(括)(我)(们)(自)(己)(的)(飞)(机)(、自)(己)(的)(军)(舰)(,基)(本)(上)(都)(是)(在)(那)(个)(极)(为)(困)(难)(的)(时)(期)(开)(始)(建)(造)(出)(来)(。如)(果)(没)(有)(社)(会)(主)(义)(制)(度)(,很)(难)(想)(象)(中)(国)(能)(够)(在)(这)(么)(短)(的)(时)(间)(内)(建)(立)(起)(独)(立)(的)(国)(防)(体)(系)(。
  中)(国)(选)(择)(社)(会)(主)(义)(道)(路)(的)(第)(二)(个)(重)(要)(原)(因)(是)(历)(史)(的)(经)(验)(和)(教)(训)(。回)(顾)(中)(国)(两)(千)(多)(年)(的)(历)(史)(,我)(们)(可)(以)(发)(现)(土)(地)(兼)(并)(和)(贫)(富)(悬)(殊)(是)(每)(个)(王)(朝)(晚)(期)(面)(临)(的)(共)(同)(问)(题)(。尽)(管)(历)(朝)(历)(代)(的)(中)(国)(政)(府)(都)(试)(图)(缓)(解)(这)(个)(社)(会)(矛)(盾)(,但)(生)(产)(资)(料)(的)(私)(人)(所)(有)(制)(度)(决)(定)(了)(土)(地)(兼)(并)(和)(贫)(富)(悬)(殊)(的)(现)(象)(无)(法)(根)(除)(。如)(果)(当)(时)(中)(国)(不)(搞)(工)(商)(业)(的)(社)(会)(主)(义)(改)(造)(,不)(搞)(农)(村)(的)(社)(会)(主)(义)(合)(作)(化)(,那)(么)(中)(国)(就)(难)(免)(会)(重)(蹈)(历)(史)(上)(各)(个)(王)(朝)(的)(覆)(辙)(,土)(地)(兼)(并)(将)(会)(导)(致)(大)(量)(无)(地)(流)(民)(出)(现)(,贫)(富)(悬)(殊)(将)(会)(造)(成)(大)(量)(的)(城)(市)(贫)(民)(,最)(终)(导)(致)(国)(家)(的)(崩)(溃)(。所)(以)(,中)(国)(共)(产)(党)(在)(上)(个)(世)(纪)(五)(十)(年)(代)(中)(叶)(是)(用)(社)(会)(主)(义)(制)(度)(来)(解)(决)(中)(国)(历)(史)(上)(两)(千)(多)(年)(的)(根)(本)(性)(弊)(端)(,是)(一)(场)(深)(刻)(的)(社)(会)(革)(命)(。1956年)(社)(会)(主)(义)(制)(度)(的)(确)(立)(给)(中)(国)(社)(会)(的)(稳)(定)(与)(发)(展)(提)(供)(了)(最)(重)(要)(的)(基)(础)(和)(保)(障)(。直)(到)(今)(天)(,农)(村)(土)(地)(的)(集)(体)(所)(有)(制)(度)(和)(国)(有)(企)(业)(仍)(然)(是)(中)(国)(社)(会)(经)(济)(结)(构)(中)(最)(重)(要)(的)(基)(础)(。
  在)(经)(济)(领)(域)(进)(一)(步)(深)(化)(市)(场)(化)(导)(向)(的)(改)(革)(,是)(当)(下)(中)(国)(发)(展)(的)(一)(个)(重)(要)(方)(向)(。市)(场)(能)(够)(最)(大)(限)(度)(地)(实)(现)(资)(源)(的)(有)(效)(配)(置)(,从)(而)(给)(经)(济)(发)(展)(提)(供)(强)(大)(而)(持)(续)(的)(动)(力)(。在)(改)(革)(开)(放)(前)(的)(计)(划)(经)(济)(年)(代)(,中)(国)(也)(曾)(实)(施)(过)(以)(政)(治)(动)(员)(和)(道)(德)(理)(想)(为)(动)(力)(的)(发)(展)(模)(式)(,在)(一)(段)(时)(间)(内)(也)(曾)(给)(中)(国)(经)(济)(提)(供)(了)(强)(大)(的)(动)(力)(。但)(是)(,这)(种)(发)(展)(模)(式)(更)(多)(是)(在)(国)(家)(生)(死)(存)(亡)(的)(危)(急)(关)(头)(发)(挥)(作)(用)(,很)(难)(在)(和)(平)(时)(期)(持)(续)(推)(动)(经)(济)(发)(展)(。在)(未)(来)(相)(当)(长)(的)(历)(史)(阶)(段)(,进)(一)(步)(深)(化)(改)(革)(,让)(市)(场)(在)(资)(源)(配)(置)(中)(发)(挥)(决)(定)(性)(作)(用)(仍)(是)(中)(国)(经)(济)(发)(展)(的)(方)(向)(。但)(是)(,经)(济)(的)(高)(度)(市)(场)(化)(反)(过)(来)(要)(求)(中)(国)(社)(会)(必)(须)(坚)(持)(社)(会)(主)(义)(道)(路)(。历)(史)(的)(经)(验)(与)(现)(实)(的)(需)(要)(告)(诉)(我)(们)(,市)(场)(经)(济)(在)(中)(国)(的)(发)(展)(需)(要)(更)(加)(坚)(持)(以)(社)(会)(主)(义)(公)(有)(制)(的)(主)(导)(性)(,更)(加)(强)(调)(和)(加)(大)(社)(会)(主)(义)(按)(劳)(分)(配)(的)(分)(配)(制)(度)(,更)(加)(坚)(持)(社)(会)(主)(义)(共)(同)(富)(裕)(的)(基)(本)(原)(则)(。从)(这)(意)(义)(上)(说)(,社)(会)(主)(义)(是)(今)(天)(中)(国)(的)(立)(国)(之)(本)(。
  综)(上)(所)(述)(,一)(个)(民)(族)(、一)(个)(国)(家)(实)(行)(什)(么)(样)(的)(的)(制)(度)(,并)(不)(是)(某)(一)(个)(人)(或)(某)(一)(些)(人)(能)(够)(主)(观)(决)(定)(的)(,而)(是)(由)(历)(史)(基)(因)(与)(现)(实)(需)(要)(决)(定)(的)(。平)(等)(精)(神)(是)(中)(华)(民)(族)(最)(强)(大)(的)(历)(史)(基)(因)(,中)(国)(社)(会)(对)(公)(平)(正)(义)(的)(追)(求)(几)(千)(年)(绵)(延)(不)(断)(,因)(此)(,社)(会)(主)(义)(在)(中)(国)(有)(着)(深)(厚)(的)(历)(史)(渊)(源)(,中)(国)(选)(择)(社)(会)(主)(义)(是)(历)(史)(的)(必)(然)(。同)(时)(,社)(会)(主)(义)(也)(是)(现)(代)(中)(国)(的)(救)(国)(之)(道)(和)(立)(国)(之)(本)(,中)(国)(选)(择)(社)(会)(主)(义)(道)(路)(是)(现)(实)(的)(需)(要)(。只)(要)(我)(们)(读)(懂)(了)(中)(国)(的)(历)(史)(传)(统)(与)(今)(天)(中)(国)(的)(现)(实)(需)(要)(,就)(能)(够)(理)(解)(社)(会)(主)(义)(为)(什)(么)(能)(够)(在)(中)(国)(蓬)(勃)(发)(展)(。
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