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国际铜业协会预测:电动汽车市场拉动铜需求

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2019年10月23日 15:46:16
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(  国)(际)(铜)(业)(协)(会)(近)(日)(发)(布)(2018年)(铜)(行)(业)(展)(望)(,提)(出)(五)(大)(趋)(势)(有)(望)(引)(领)(行)(业)(发)(展)(。
  1.电)(动)(汽)(车)(市)(场)(拉)(动)(铜)(需)(求)(
  随)(着)(多)(款)(新)(型)(电)(动)(汽)(车)(推)(向)(市)(场)(,电)(动)(汽)(车)(有)(望)(在)(2018年)(迎)(来)(爆)(发)(式)(增)(长)(。
  全)(球)(有)(10个)(国)(家)(在)(电)(动)(汽)(车)(领)(域)(位)(于)(前)(列)(,其)(市)(场)(占)(有)(率)(总)(计)(达)(95%。按)(市)(场)(占)(有)(率)(排)(序)(,这)(些)(国)(家)(分)(别)(为)(中)(国)(、美)(国)(、挪)(威)(、英)(国)(、法)(国)(、日)(本)(、德)(国)(、荷)(兰)(、瑞)(典)(和)(加)(拿)(大)(。在)(技)(术)(改)(良)(、价)(格)(下)(调)(和)(充)(电)(桩)(普)(及)(的)(推)(动)(下)(,到)(2025年)(,预)(计)(六)(分)(之)(一)(的)(车)(辆)(将)(由)(电)(力)(驱)(动)(。
  电)(动)(汽)(车)(技)(术)(高)(度)(依)(赖)(铜)(材)(。其)(铜)(材)(需)(求)(量)(有)(望)(从)(2017年)(的)(18.5万)(吨)(增)(至)(2027年)(的)(174万)(吨)(。电)(动)(汽)(车)(的)(多)(个)(关)(键)(部)(件)(都)(用)(到)(铜)(,如)(电)(池)(、电)(机)(、充)(电)(站)(以)(及)(配)(套)(设)(施)(等)(。此)(外)(,电)(动)(汽)(车)(技)(术)(越)(先)(进)(,铜)(材)(的)(需)(求)(量)(就)(越)(大)(。内)(燃)(机)(通)(常)(要)(用)(掉)(23公)(斤)(铜)(,混)(合)(动)(力)(电)(动)(汽)(车)(要)(使)(用)(40公)(斤)(铜)(,插)(电)(式)(混)(合)(动)(力)(汽)(车)(要)(使)(用)(60公)(斤)(铜)(,而)(纯)(电)(池)(驱)(动)(电)(动)(汽)(车)(则)(需)(要)(多)(达)(83公)(斤)(的)(铜)(。
  2.水)(资)(源)(危)(机)(日)(趋)(严)(峻)(
  全)(球)(各)(地)(都)(遭)(受)(着)(水)(资)(源)(危)(机)(。一)(些)(地)(区)(久)(旱)(无)(雨)(,而)(其)(它)(地)(区)(则)(洪)(涝)(频)(袭)(,导)(致)(许)(多)(地)(区)(缺)(乏)(清)(洁)(的)(饮)(用)(水)(资)(源)(。随)(着)(水)(资)(源)(需)(求)(的)(增)(长)(,气)(候)(变)(化)(的)(不)(断)(影)(响)(以)(及)(高)(效)(供)(水)(设)(施)(的)(缺)(乏)(,这)(些)(问)(题)(正)(变)(得)(日)(趋)(严)(峻)(。在)(水)(危)(机)(泛)(滥)(的)(不)(少)(地)(区)(,用)(于)(输)(送)(、处)(理)(和)(排)(放)(水)(体)(所)(需)(的)(管)(道)(、处)(理)(厂)(和)(下)(水)(系)(统)(等)(综)(合)(系)(统)(设)(施)(要)(么)(状)(况)(不)(佳)(,要)(么)(根)(本)(没)(有)(。
  随)(着)(水)(资)(源)(和)(天)(然)(水)(基)(础)(设)(施)(的)(不)(断)(损)(耗)(,找)(到)(切)(实)(可)(行)(的)(解)(决)(办)(法)(变)(得)(越)(来)(越)(重)(要)(。这)(样)(,铜)(就)(有)(了)(用)(武)(之)(地)(。铜)(是)(一)(种)(耐)(用)(可)(靠)(且)(性)(能)(稳)(定)(的)(金)(属)(,特)(别)(适)(用)(于)(水)(管)(设)(施)(的)(铺)(设)(。其)(良)(好)(的)(防)(渗)(透)(性)(可)(以)(防)(止)(石)(油)(、杀)(虫)(剂)(和)(化)(肥)(等)(污)(染)(物)(进)(入)(水)(系)(统)(。与)(铅)(不)(同)(的)(是)(,铜)(还)(具)(有)(防)(腐)(蚀)(能)(力)(,同)(时)(也)(是)(人)(体)(生)(长)(和)(发)(育)(必)(需)(的)(一)(种)(营)(养)(物)(质)(。
  位)(于)(美)(国)(和)(加)(拿)(大)(的)(许)(多)(城)(市)(已)(经)(开)(始)(使)(用)(铜)(制)(水)(管)(来)(代)(替)(铅)(制)(水)(管)(。铜)(制)(供)(水)(设)(施)(已)(经)(在)(多)(伦)(多)(、蒙)(特)(利)(尔)(、密)(尔)(沃)(基)(和)(密)(歇)(根)(州)(的)(弗)(林)(特)(市)(等)(许)(多)(城)(市)(成)(功)(投)(入)(使)(用)(,这)(充)(分)(证)(明)(了)(铜)(——这)(一)(重)(要)(材)(料)(可)(以)(给)(全)(世)(界)(有)(需)(求)(的)(地)(区)(带)(来)(清)(洁)(的)(水)(源)(。
  3.电)(气)(化)(的)(未)(来)(
  根)(据)(国)(际)(能)(源)(署)(最)(近)(出)(版)(的)(《2017年)(世)(界)(能)(源)(展)(望)(》,电)(气)(化)(的)(崛)(起)(意)(味)(着)(电)(力)(将)(进)(入)(汽)(车)(、供)(暖)(和)(制)(冷)(系)(统)(等)(原)(来)(仅)(限)(于)(燃)(料)(供)(能)(的)(领)(域)(。
  人)(们)(收)(入)(的)(增)(加)(使)(得)(数)(百)(万)(的)(家)(庭)(能)(够)(使)(用)(各)(种)(电)(器)(和)(制)(冷)(设)(备)(,这)(必)(然)(会)(推)(动)(全)(世)(界)(的)(电)(力)(需)(求)(增)(长)(。印)(度)(和)(印)(尼)(在)(电)(力)(需)(求)(增)(长)(方)(面)(也)(非)(常)(可)(观)(。另)(外)(,在)(撒)(哈)(拉)(以)(南)(的)(非)(洲)(地)(区)(,其)(电)(气)(化)(发)(展)(速)(度)(在)(2014年)(首)(次)(超)(过)(了)(人)(口)(的)(增)(长)(速)(度)(。
  发)(电)(,配)(电)(和)(输)(电)(需)(要)(用)(到)(大)(量)(的)(铜)(材)(。铜)(是)(绝)(好)(的)(导)(电)(材)(料)(,在)(高)(温)(下)(依)(然)(表)(现)(出)(色)(,这)(有)(助)(于)(电)(气)(系)(统)(并)(入)(大)(型)(电)(网)(。
  4.可)(再)(生)(能)(源)(增)(长)(势)(头)(喜)(人)(
  2015年)(,风)(力)(和)(太)(阳)(能)(发)(电)(量)(占)(全)(球)(发)(电)(总)(量)(的)(23%。随)(着)(风)(力)(和)(太)(阳)(能)(发)(电)(产)(能)(的)(增)(加)(,该)(占)(比)(有)(望)(在)(2020年)(升)(至)(30%。
  全)(球)(范)(围)(内)(对)(可)(再)(生)(能)(源)(的)(需)(求)(一)(直)(居)(高)(不)(下)(。从)(风)(电)(涡)(轮)(到)(太)(阳)(能)(电)(池)(板)(,铜)(是)(可)(再)(生)(能)(源)(技)(术)(的)(关)(键)(组)(成)(部)(分)(。风)(电)(涡)(轮)(使)(用)(铜)(材)(作)(为)(接)(地)(线)(、输)(电)(电)(缆)(、变)(压)(器)(、变)(频)(器)(、防)(雷)(保)(护)(器)(,以)(及)(其)(发)(电)(机)(和)(控)(制)(系)(统)(的)(部)(分)(材)(料)(。[13]仅)(一)(座)(风)(力)(发)(电)(站)(就)(要)(用)(掉)(400万)(磅)((1800吨)()到)(1500万)(磅)((6800吨)()的)(铜)(材)(。
  铜)(材)(也)(用)(于)(太)(阳)(能)(发)(电)(系)(统)(的)(关)(键)(部)(件)(,它)(可)(以)(提)(高)(光)(伏)(电)(池)(和)(组)(件)(的)(能)(效)(、可)(靠)(性)(和)(性)(能)(。铜)(优)(异)(的)(导)(电)(导)(热)(特)(性)(在)(太)(阳)(能)(的)(采)(集)(、储)(存)(和)(分)(配)(方)(面)(起)(着)(至)(关)(重)(要)(的)(作)(用)(。
  5.绿)(色)(建)(筑)(的)(兴)(起)(
  目)(前)(,建)(筑)(业)(耗)(能)(占)(全)(球)(最)(终)(能)(源)(的)(30%,节)(能)(潜)(力)(可)(观)(。随)(着)(可)(持)(续)(性)(建)(筑)(需)(求)(的)(增)(长)(,绿)(色)(建)(造)(效)(益)(不)(断)(显)(现)(,在)(全)(球)(建)(筑)(市)(场)(中)(备)(受)(青)(睐)(。
  中)(国)(正)(大)(力)(提)(高)(建)(筑)(可)(持)(续)(性)(。中)(国)(的)(《建)(筑)(能)(效)(和)(绿)(色)(建)(筑)(发)(展)(十)(三)(五)(规)(划)(》中)(要)(求)(50%的)(新)(建)(城)(市)(建)(筑)(必)(须)(获)(得)(绿)(色)(建)(筑)(的)(认)(证)(。已)(经)(有)(90%的)(中)(国)(商)(业)(楼)(业)(主)(计)(划)(在)(未)(来)(10年)(中)(打)(造)(至)(少)(一)(栋)(零)(能)(耗)(或)(接)(近)(零)(能)(耗)(的)(建)(筑)(。
  欧)(盟)(也)(在)(这)(一)(领)(域)(持)(续)(发)(力)(。降)(低)(建)(筑)(物)(的)(能)(耗)(对)(欧)(盟)(实)(现)(其)(对)(《巴)(黎)(协)(定)(》所)(作)(出)(的)(承)(诺)(具)(有)(决)(定)(性)(的)(作)(用)(,也)(是)(其)(《清)(洁)(能)(源)(计)(划)(》的)(主)(要)(焦)(点)(。
  铜)(材)(在)(房)(屋)(建)(造)(中)(的)(应)(用)(几)(乎)(永)(无)(止)(境)(,其)(用)(途)(包)(括)(屋)(顶)(和)(墙)(壁)(覆)(层)(、遮)(雨)(板)(、排)(水)(槽)(和)(排)(水)(管)(、电)(线)(布)(线)(、管)(道)(系)(统)(、供)(暖)(系)(统)(、通)(风)(系)(统)(和)(设)(计)(元)(素)(等)(。铜)(材)(坚)(实)(耐)(用)(,其)(使)(用)(期)(限)(和)(建)(筑)(物)(的)(寿)(命)(不)(相)(上)(下)(,中)(途)(无)(需)(更)(换)(。此)(外)(,铜)(作)(为)(建)(材)(还)(有)(耐)(腐)(蚀)(、抗)(氧)(化)(、维)(护)(成)(本)(低)(、重)(量)(轻)(及)(抑)(菌)(等)(优)(点)(。
  (责)(编)(:徐)(晓)(燕)()
)


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